History of video game formation: part 3
In the previous two sections, we gave an overview of the history of video game development up to the mid-1990s. Then came the rise of artificial intelligence in 1997. Usually when it comes to artificial intelligence, what comes to the minds of many people are robots that talk and think like humans. In fact, artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science. Artificial intelligence has been around since the 1950s, and is a fledgling industry. It can be said that artificial intelligence is one of the most controversial parts of technology. Many researchers and scientists agree with the development of artificial intelligence and consider it necessary for the future of human life. According to some, the development of an excellent level of artificial intelligence will be the last invention of the human race, because after that, it is artificial intelligence, which invents and produces itself, not man. In contrast, another group of researchers and experts warns of the dangers that artificial intelligence may pose to human life in the future. Despite all these debates, today, artificial intelligence has entered more or less different aspects of our lives, and is evolving. Robotics, the agricultural industry, intelligent equipment, and transportation systems are examples of using artificial intelligence, but other than that, its role in entertainment and video games can also be seen.
In the 1990s, three factors influenced the growth and development of the video game industry. These three factors are the development of artificial intelligence, the development of hardware and the spread of 3D games, and the introduction of Windows 95.
Artificial intelligence is one of the most important factors in a game, and gives it a natural and real color. To describe the role of artificial intelligence in a video game, we can name characters that are not controlled by the player, or Non-Playable Character. In the process of making a game, it is important to see what reaction from the other characters, Non-Playable Character, in the game, to the action taken by the player in the game environment. This, which is one of the criteria for measuring a game, depends on the efforts of programmers and developers, to what extent they work on artificial intelligence, to see more natural and logical behavior by the characters of a game. In such a situation, all the actions of the players must be predicted in advance and logical reactions to them must be defined.
In addition to the advancement of artificial intelligence, the advancement of hardware in the 1990s led to significant advances in the technical graphics of games, from two-dimensional tradition to the rise of 3D games. Prior to this, with the exception of a few limited 3D titles, in most cases, game graphics were presented in 2D. In the mid-1990s, as the Sega Mega Drive console was nearing the end of its life, a number of developers began making 3D games such as Toy Story and Sonic 3D for Sega Mega Drive console. These were, in fact, the full use of the Sega Mega Drive console hardware. The storage of games on the cartridge had reached the end of the line, and reading the data from the compact disc was introduced. The PlayStation 1 console soon overtook rivals such as Super Nintendo and Sega Mega Drive by impressing gamers with its hardware capability and compact disc usage. At the time, it was thought that 3D games would leave out 2D games. However, although many of the gaming industry's top titles have 3D graphics, 2D games have survived, and we see many creative and engaging titles in the field.
Another thing that has been mentioned is the introduction of the famous Windows 4 operating system or Windows 95. Before the 1990s, there were a lot of games that ran on PCs, but it the consoles had the more high quality and variety than them. Windows 95, with its attractive user interface at the time, and features such as reading data from a CD, playing music, multitasking, and the ability to connect to the Internet, greatly made computers more homely. Due to the simplification of the user interface, many users who found it difficult to work with the common operating system before Windows 95, ie MS DOS, were encouraged to use personal computers. This, as well as the efforts of some game companies to make quality exclusive games for PCs, led to the growth and development of games on PCs and removed it from the monopoly of consoles.
The second half of the 1990s was not a successful year for consoles Nintendo and Sega. Following the success of the Sega Mega Drive console, Sega released its next consoles, the Sega Saturn in 1995 and the Sega Dreamcast in 1998. Nintendo also released the Nintendo 64 in 1996. But for Sony, the situation was different. On the one hand, the high sales and success of the PlayStation 1 console had pleased Sony executives, and on the other hand, the issue was Sony's next console, which had to be addressed. Sony introduced the PlayStation 2 console in 1999 and released it a year later, in 2000.
What initially caught our eye was the new console's ability to deliver better quality graphics. The PlayStation 1's large, shaky pixels were replaced by smooth, high-quality graphics. The game environment was also expanded, offering more possibilities for players. In addition, one of the things that increased the PlayStation 2 sales was its ability to play DVDs, and players could use it as a DVD player instead of a gaming device. The PlayStation 2 console was a huge success, selling about 155 million copies in 2013.
The Sega Dreamcast was not an inefficient console and had innovations, but just a year after the release of Dreamcast, the PlayStation 2 entered the market and did not allow it to express itself. Production of Dreamcast ceased in 2001, making it one of the biggest console failures. Nintendo, on the other hand, launched its next console, the GameCube, in 2001, which sold about 21 million copies worldwide. At the same time, Microsoft entered the console industry for the first time. The Xbox was released in 2001 and sold about 24 million copies. After a few years of the PlayStation 2, the gaming industry entered a new generation, with Microsoft launching the Xbox 360 in 2005, Nintendo launching the Wii in 2006, and Sony launching the PlayStation 3 in 2006. The PlayStation 3 could not replicate the success of its previous console, selling just 80 million copies. The consoles of this era, which of course brought good memories for the players, are known as the seventh generation consoles.
Video game console generations
1. The first generation, between 1972 and 1973
2. The second generation, between 1976 and 1983, with the Atari 2600 console
3. The third generation, between 1983 and 1987 with the presence of the Nintendo console
4. The fourth generation, between 1987 and 1993, featured the Sega Mega Drive and Super Nintendo consoles.
5. The fifth generation, between 1993 and 1998, featuring the PlayStation 1 and Nintendo 64 consoles
6. The sixth generation, between 1998 and 2005, featured the Sega Dreamcast and PlayStation 2 consoles
7. The seventh generation, between 2005 and 2012, with the presence of Wii consoles, PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360
8. The eighth generation, launched in 2012, with PlayStation 4, Nintendo Switch, and Xbox One
Today, in addition to consoles and, of course, personal computers, there are other guests entering the gaming industry. Many players use mobile phones as their only gaming platform. In recent years, mobile phones have become more than just a voice communication device, they have become one of the platforms for gaming.
Looking at the human effort to build the calculator, which began in the seventeenth century, and the development of technology in the last decade, it can be concluded that the flow of e-entertainment has accelerated and will continue to move in recent years. What happened in the early twentieth century was the construction of electric computers, and after that period, in the 1970s, efforts were made to house computers. Computers and consoles then became part of our lives, and gradually established themselves. Of course, it would not have been possible to build these tools without the development of hardware and software.
In addition to hardware advances, software advances also affect the industry. Graphic effects standards, user-friendly environments, software optimizations, the development of game-related artificial intelligence, and much more will affect the software world. After the advent of the Internet in human life, in the late 1980s it became possible for players to play online games. One of the many things that is gaining popularity among players these days is networked games, which, with the introduction of new mechanics, have been able to bring many players into interactive virtual environments, and entertain them. Online games include Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) and Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO) . In MOBA, which has traces of strategic style, players are grouped online and each group must destroy the main building of the opposing group. In MMO, players are grouped online and enter a large environment. The type of game can be groups fighting, against each other or carrying out missions as a group. Undoubtedly, one of the factors that make these games attractive is the interaction of players with each other. In single-player games, the player must interact with the AI in the game, which, of course, may be defective, or monotonous and predictable. But in interactive and online games, the players will collide with each other, and the actions of the other side will be more natural and unpredictable. However, the expansion of this practice did not mean the elimination of single-player games, and many developers were still building large single-player titles, trying to improve their mechanics.
In addition to the practice of online gaming in recent years, Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) technologies have also entered the gaming industry, giving it a more realistic look. The player feels at the heart of the story through VR glasses, and AR connects the game and software to the real world outside.
Another interesting thing that can completely change the shape of future consoles is Cloud Gaming (in this way, the player, only through a special Internet connection, will connect to the center and play the game ). This technology means that the player no longer needs to buy a powerful console or computer, and the computer, cell phone, or any other device acts like a receiver. Currently, a number of large companies are offering the Cloud gameing service. In addition, top game streamers on Twitch, YouTube and other streaming platforms benefit from this service.
The gaming industry has not been created overnight by one person. Many people, at different times and in different places, worked on different parts of the industry, to the point where we see it today. When we hear the word Game, the first thing that comes to mind is Entertainment. The game is like a dough that can be made into any shape. In this regard, many games were created that have aspects other than entertainment and fun. Serious games and Simulator games are in this category. The purpose of these games is to educate, familiarize the player with a specific environment and identify their weaknesses. In addition to these cases, we can also mention the Gamification, which has been introduced since 2011. Gamification means using the rules of the game in non-gaming environments, such as business, education, and so on. Of course, the gaming industry will continue to move rapidly. In the meantime, two important factors, namely new technologies and consumer tastes, will affect it.
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