Consequences of computer games
In the 1980s, researchers began to evaluate the role of computer games in a variety of issues (including health, eye-hand coordination, daily activity patterns, school performance, personality, psychopathology, and social applications). Preliminary results presented in 1983 emphasized the positive aspects of playing games. Computer games, like other technologies, have different consequences in different dimensions and aspects. In this article, we refer to some of them.
Violence in computer games is one of the first and most important things that has attracted the most attention of researchers. Undoubtedly, exposure to media violence can affect attitudes and behavior. Continuing to play violent computer games may have a negative effect, reducing empathy and reinforcing the belief that "the world is a dangerous place." However, some researchers believe that playing violent computer games may also be helpful and help girls learn how to compete in an aggressive world. Of course, it is clear that engaging in violent games will also have negative consequences, and no one denies this. It should be noted, however, that these games make up a small percentage of the total production of computer games and, of course, have an age limit (usually, people over the age of 18 deal with these games, which have a less negative impact than children on these people).
Self-esteem is an important factor in learning, and there seems to be a significant relationship between playing video/computer games and self-esteem. In one study, researchers concluded that there was a significant relationship between time spent playing digital games and self-esteem. In a study of 204 students in London, researchers found that among girls, playing computer games was not associated with self-esteem, but among boys, there was a negative relationship between self-esteem and the number of times they played.
Sahguero used a Rosenberg self-assessment questionnaire to examine the relationship between computer games and self-esteem. He found that excessive use of computer games was associated with lower self-esteem, and that high-achieving players scored significantly lower on the self-assessment questionnaire.
The effect of computer games on mental function and memory
Recent research shows that people who choose and play action, fighting, and strategy games (such as Call of Duty) have more powerful abilities than others. These games help humans to focus on visual information and bypass irrelevant information. In this way, the people who play these games can identify the face of a friend from the crowd, and among the cars, on a busy street. Researchers at the University of Rochester believe that people who need extraordinary abilities (such as war pilots) can use these games to dramatically improve their skills. These abilities help a person to avoid a car accident in critical situations with an appropriate reaction. Researchers at the University of Rochester have found that children who play computer games have faster decision-making and thinking abilities, and more coordination between their hands and eyes. Research shows that even fathers, mothers, grandfathers and grandmothers will benefit greatly from playing with game consoles and computers, and their brain function and memory will improve. Computer games can prevent some perceptual disabilities and enhance 3D processing and visual acuity. Previous studies have shown that older people who are familiar with working with computers and other modern devices are less likely to develop mental illnesses such as Alzheimer's and the like.
Physiological effects of computer games
One of the concerns about computer games is that they make their users inactive. Today, experts have solved this to some extent. They are trying to improve this inactivity to some extent. For example, game companies have developed devices that connect to a computer, and with their help, one has to perform the movements that are performed in the game. For example, in table tennis, the user holds a racket-like device, which, instead of pressing a button, he must move and racket the racket-like device to succeed during the game. We all have no doubt that computer games cause inactivity, but if the time of these games is managed, there is no problem. Playing computer games is very exciting, and involves players directly, using various levels and buttons.
The physiological effects of playing computer games were examined in 1991 by Segal and Diets. They reviewed metabolic responses, as well as cardiovascular responses, in 32 individuals who played popular computer games. They found that, in the subjects, not only did their heart rate increase during the game, but also their oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and their respiratory rate increased. Increased metabolism was another case that was confirmed by these researchers. In addition, some reports have highlighted the spinal discomfort of players who played for hours, or the skin discomfort caused by exposure to screen rays.
Regarding the effect of computer games on academic performance, the results of research by some researchers showed that there is no significant relationship between the use of computer games and academic failure and daydreaming, but there is a relationship between the use of computer games and creativity and academic performance.
Some researchers have concluded that video game addiction has a negative effect on the academic performance of students, especially boys. On the other hand, the results of research by some other researchers showed that there was no significant negative relationship between the time children play and their academic performance. Perhaps this finding was due to the fact that their play was controlled in a way that did not negatively affect their academic performance. From the findings of previous research, it can be concluded that, if the type of games is appropriate to the age of users, and also the duration of the game is controlled, not only does not harm academic performance, but also enhances academic performance, and as an educational tool , it can be used.
A 1998 study by researchers shows that one of the first concerns about computer games, given their widespread use among young people, was that such games might, by creating a more engaging atmosphere than homework, lead to Interfere with scientific and academic performance. There is also empirical evidence to support this claim. It is clear that if a child spends his or her time outside of school playing computer games, then he or she will neglect lessons and other activities that may be socially or intellectually beneficial, and an unpleasant problem will arise. However, the impact of computer games on academic performance has largely depended on how the computer is used. Those who were busy with their computer programs at home showed better academic performance. Therefore, not all researchers believe that computer games are harmful to children. Meanwhile, some believe that games can also have educational benefits. However, in 2000, findings on the impact of computer games on academic performance were limited and contradictory. For example, Lin and Liper, in a study of 234 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students, sought to examine the relationship between academic performance and playing computer games. Teachers were given a 7-point scale to measure the student's academic performance and various behavioral variables.
The study showed a small but statistically significant negative correlation between the use of computer games and boys' math ability and general academic competence, but there was no correlation between home game use and academic performance.
In 1999, other researchers looked at the relationship between academic performance and computer games from a completely different perspective. They ran questionnaires on 64 teens, and wanted to know if playing new computer games affected their academic performance. As expected, children initially spent a lot of time playing a new computer game, but the intensity and repetition of it did not affect how the children did their homework and their current grade in math or English. However, a group of children who did not play computer games showed higher math scores than those who did.
To analyze this difference, the researchers speculated that the families of these children may be very serious with them, and may also set a situation against the purchase of a computer game system. In another study by a group of researchers, high school students who spent a lot of time or money playing computer games were in a lower position in English classes.
The content of computer games can also affect the relationship between playing computer games and academic performance. For example, if students only play educational computer games, they are more likely to fail. Liberman and colleagues found that children who used computers for school activities performed better. However, regardless of the content of the program, the use of computer games can lead to academic failure as the time that should be devoted to educational and social activities is replaced by it. Accordingly, electronic media can negatively affect learning and social behavior by replacing activities such as reading, family relationships, and social games with peers.
Educational role of computer games
According to UNESCO, many computer games contribute to the development of high-level mental abilities. In non-educational games, too, the use of computer games is itself a form of learning. These games can be played individually, in groups, in collaboration, or competitively. In computer games, advanced technologies are used to show reality or visualize fantasies. Games create an environment which can be played or repeated. What fascinates players about using computer games is their structure, not the content of the games. Structures include interaction, the existence of a goal, as well as the rules that govern the game. Winning is the key to motivation. When the challenge is still there, playing can be stimulating. An important aspect of control created by computer games is that when the computer starts some operations, the user performs other operations. It is this interaction that makes games attractive.
Benefits of educational computer games
From a cognitive point of view, some reasons can be useful in learning through games.
1. The knowledge or skills that are learned and practiced in the game can be applied in other situations and help to understand other things.
2. The game, by placing the player in the role of the decision-maker, leads him to difficult challenges, to learn by trial and error.
3. Games have an important advantage, which is that they encourage people to explore and experiment further by giving immediate feedback on their actions and decisions.
4. By going through different levels, the difficulty and complexity of the game is added, and the person does not go to the next level until he has succeeded in the previous level, and this is a suitable educational tool, because the goal of each level is quite clear and obvious, which one must master.
5. Most importantly, the steps can be fast or slow depending on the pervasive features. That is, they are adjusted to the individual's characteristics and, in a way, fit into the spiral curriculum.
Another reason that games are a good educational tool is that they engage the player and encourage the user to be continuing.
One of the obvious advantages of games is the created environment of the game. Play, during childhood, has an important role in the psychological, social and mental development of children. Computer games can provide an opportunity that is complementary to reality. Games, for example, have rules that allow the player to choose what to do. A game that is unrestricted or with very strict restrictions is not a game at all. Playing computer games, by specifying rules, helps learners understand why rules are necessary, and why rules make sense. However, the prevalence of the term "game deception" among players has led them to believe that the rules are only for beginners and novice players. It seems that the knowledge of how to find and use deceptions is embedded in the culture of the players. Therefore, gathering information about deceptions is really part of the game and, in essence, another challenge.
Games allow players to play a role. In this safe environment, where role-playing ultimately has no particular consequences, role-playing can increase perception, and it does so through the situation it creates for the player. Role-playing can increase the ability to judge the effectiveness of any action, and provide an indication of the possible consequences of those actions. Games must use memory logic, problem solving, and critical thinking, visualization, and exploration skills. To use them, players must manipulate the objects used in electronic devices and understand the game as a complex complex system.
Playing group games can develop social skills. For example, these goals can be explained by defining goals and defining them and deciding to achieve them.
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